50+ Linux Command Sheet List for Newbies!

Essential Linux Command Sheet List

Essential Linux Commands
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asic Linux Commands: Linux is one of the best Operating System in the world. Linux adopts DOS technology and made to provide more features & compatibility to users. Linux is an open-source operating system, many programmers all around the world helping to refine Linux OS. The major Linux distros are Debian & Non-Debian Linux. Ubuntu is one of the best Linux based Debian distros. Windows is completely based on GUI and Linux is easier if you learn the commands. We provide the essential commands will help you use Linux more easily. The below commands will work on all Linux Distros.

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Hardware Linux Commands:

dmesg Command to display bootup messages
cat /proc/cpuinfo Command to display more information about CPU
cat /proc/meminfo Command to display more information about hardware memory.
lshw Command to display information about the device’s hardware configuration.
lsblk Command to display block devices related information.
free -m Command to display free and used memory in the system.
lspci -tv Command to display PCI devices in a tree-like diagram.
lsusb -tv Command to display USB devices.
dmidecode Command to displays hardware information from the BIOS.
hdparm -i /dev/xda Command to display information about HDD data.
hdparm -tT /dev/xda <:code> Command to conduct a read speed test on device xda.
badblocks -s /dev/xda Command to test for unreadable blocks on harddisk.

A System Based Linux Commands:

Some essential system based Linux Commands are:

uname  Command to display Linux system information.
uname -r Command to display kernel release information.
uptime Command to display how long the system has been running including load average.
hostname Command to show the system hostname.
hostname -i Command to display the IP address.
last reboot Command to show system reboot history.
date Command to display current system date and time.
timedatectl Command to change the System clock.
cal Command to display the current calendar month and day.
w Command to display currently logged in users.
whoami Command to display who you are logged in as.
finger username Command to display information about the user.
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File-based Linux Commands:

Some essential file-based Linux Commands,

ls -al List all files.
pwd Command to display the current directory file path.
mkdir ‘directory_name’ Command to create a new directory.
rm filename Command to remove a file.
rm -f filename Command to remove a file forcefully.
rm -r directoryname Command to remove a directory.
rm -rf directoryname Command to remove a directory forcefully.
cp file1 file3 Command to copy the contents of file1 to file3.
cp -r dir1 dir3 Command to copy the content from dir1 to dir2.
mv file1 file3 Command to rename file1 to file3.
ln -s /path/to/filename   linkname Command to create a symbolic link to filename.
touch filename Command to create a new file.
cat > filename Command to place standard input into a file.
more filename Command to display output contents of a file.
head filename Command to display the first 10 lines of a file.
tail filename Command to display the last 10 lines of a file.
gpg -c filename Command to encrypt a file.
gpg filename.ext Comand to decrypt a file.
wc Command to print the number of bytes, words, and lines in a file.
xargs Command to executes command.

Linux Commands to handle Users:

id Command to display the details of the active user.
last Command to show the last logins in the system.
who Command to show who is logged in to the system.
groupadd “admin” Command to add the group “admin”.
adduser “Rachel” Command to add user Rachel.
userdel “Rachel” Command to delete user Rachel.
usermod Command for changing/modifying user information.

Linux Commands to handle File Permission:

chmod octal filename Command to change file permissions of the file to octal
chmod 777 /home/sample.txt Command to set rwx permissions to owner, group and everyone.
chmod 755 /home/sample.txt Command to set rwx to the owner and r_x to group and everyone.
chmod 766/home/sample.txt Command to set rwx for owner, rw for group and everyone.
chown owner file Command to change ownership of the file.
chown owner-user:owner-group filename Command to change owner and group owner of the file.
chown owner-user:owner-group direc Command to change owner and group owner of the directory.
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Process Related based Linux Commands:

ps Command to display currently active processes.
ps aux | grep ‘telnet’ Searches for the id of the process ‘telnet’.
pmap Command to display memory map of processes.
top Command to display all running processes.
kill pid Command to terminates process with a given pid.
killall proc Command to kill/terminate all processes named proc.
pkill process-name Command to send a signal to a process with its name.
bg Command to resumes suspended works in the background.
fg Command to bring suspended works to the foreground.
fg n job n to the foreground.
lsof Command to list files that are open by processes.
renice 19 PID Command to make a process run with very low priority.
pgrep chrome Command to find Chrome process ID.
pstree Command to visualize processes in tree model.

Network-based Linux Commands:

ip addr show Command to display IP addresses.
ip address add dev eth2 Command to assign IP address to interface eth2.
ifconfig Command to display IP addresses of all network interfaces.
ping host the ping command sends an ICMP echo request to establish a connection to server.
whois domain Command to retrieve more information about a domain name.
dig domain Command to retrieve DNS information about the domain.
dig -x host Command to perform a reverse lookup on a domain.
host Command to perform an IP lookup for the domain name.
hostname -i Command to display local IP address.
wget file_name Command to download a file from an online source.
netstat -pnltu Command to display all active listening ports.

Linux Command to handle Install Packages & Source:

sudo apt install package Command to install APT package
sudo apt remove package Command to remove an APT package
dnf install pkg_name Command to Install the package using dnf utility
make install The command installs the binaries in the default/modified paths after the compilation
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Linux Commands to handle compression:

tar -cf filename.tar home<:code> Command to create archive file called ‘filename.tar’ from file ‘home’.
tar -xf file.tar Command to extract archive file ‘file.tar’.
tar -zcvf etc.tar.gz source-folder Command to create gzipped tar archive file from the source folder.
gzip file Create a compressed file with .gz extension.

Search Linux Commands:

grep ‘matching-pattern’ files Command to search for a matching pattern in files.
grep -r provided-pattern dir Command to search recursively for a pattern in a given directory.
locate file Command to find all instances of the files.
find /etc/ -name “main”  Command to find file names that begin with ‘main’ in /etc folder.
find /etc -size +100k Command to find files greater than 100k in the etc folder.

File Transfer Linux Commands:

scp file.txt server/main Securely copy file.txt to server in /main directory.
rsync -a /home/images /folder1/ Synchronize contents in /home/images directory with /folder1  directory.

Login Linux Commands:

ssh [email protected] Securely connect to host as username.
ssh -p port-number [email protected] Securely connect to host using a specified port (22, 80, 443).
ssh host Securely connect to the server via SSH on default port 22.
telnet host Connect to host via telnet default port 23.

Directory Access Linux Commands:

cd .. Command to move up one level in the directory.
cd Command to change directory to $HOME directory.
cd /sample Command to change directory to /sample directory.


That’s it. These are the most commonly using Basic Linux Commands, If you have any queries and then comment us below.

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Written by Rachel

I'm Rachel, From Arizona. Am playing the "Content Management" Role in Tec Robust. I started working in TR from Jan 2019. Big Marvel Fan.

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