50+ Linux Command Sheet List for Newbies!

Essential Linux Command Sheet List

Essential Linux Commands


asic Linux Commands: Linux is one of the best Operating System in the world. Linux adopts DOS technology and made to provide more features & compatibility to users. Linux is an open-source operating system, many programmers all around the world helping to refine Linux OS. The major Linux distros are Debian & Non-Debian Linux. Ubuntu is one of the best Linux based Debian distros. Windows is completely based on GUI and Linux is easier if you learn the commands. We provide the essential commands will help you use Linux more easily. The below commands will work on all Linux Distros.

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Hardware Linux Commands:

dmesgCommand to display bootup messages
cat /proc/cpuinfoCommand to display more information about CPU
cat /proc/meminfoCommand to display more information about hardware memory.
lshwCommand to display information about the device’s hardware configuration.
lsblkCommand to display block devices related information.
free -mCommand to display free and used memory in the system.
lspci -tvCommand to display PCI devices in a tree-like diagram.
lsusb -tvCommand to display USB devices.
dmidecodeCommand to displays hardware information from the BIOS.
hdparm -i /dev/xdaCommand to display information about HDD data.
hdparm -tT /dev/xda <:code>Command to conduct a read speed test on device xda.
badblocks -s /dev/xdaCommand to test for unreadable blocks on harddisk.

A System Based Linux Commands:

Some essential system based Linux Commands are:

uname Command to display Linux system information.
uname -rCommand to display kernel release information.
uptimeCommand to display how long the system has been running including load average.
hostnameCommand to show the system hostname.
hostname -iCommand to display the IP address.
last rebootCommand to show system reboot history.
dateCommand to display current system date and time.
timedatectlCommand to change the System clock.
calCommand to display the current calendar month and day.
wCommand to display currently logged in users.
whoamiCommand to display who you are logged in as.
finger usernameCommand to display information about the user.
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File-based Linux Commands:

Some essential file-based Linux Commands,

ls -alList all files.
pwdCommand to display the current directory file path.
mkdir ‘directory_name’Command to create a new directory.
rm filenameCommand to remove a file.
rm -f filenameCommand to remove a file forcefully.
rm -r directorynameCommand to remove a directory.
rm -rf directorynameCommand to remove a directory forcefully.
cp file1 file3Command to copy the contents of file1 to file3.
cp -r dir1 dir3Command to copy the content from dir1 to dir2.
mv file1 file3Command to rename file1 to file3.
ln -s /path/to/filename   linknameCommand to create a symbolic link to filename.
touch filenameCommand to create a new file.
cat > filenameCommand to place standard input into a file.
more filenameCommand to display output contents of a file.
head filenameCommand to display the first 10 lines of a file.
tail filenameCommand to display the last 10 lines of a file.
gpg -c filenameCommand to encrypt a file.
gpg filename.extComand to decrypt a file.
wcCommand to print the number of bytes, words, and lines in a file.
xargsCommand to executes command.

Linux Commands to handle Users:

idCommand to display the details of the active user.
lastCommand to show the last logins in the system.
whoCommand to show who is logged in to the system.
groupadd “admin”Command to add the group “admin”.
adduser “Rachel”Command to add user Rachel.
userdel “Rachel”Command to delete user Rachel.
usermodCommand for changing/modifying user information.

Linux Commands to handle File Permission:

chmod octal filenameCommand to change file permissions of the file to octal
chmod 777 /home/sample.txtCommand to set rwx permissions to owner, group and everyone.
chmod 755 /home/sample.txtCommand to set rwx to the owner and r_x to group and everyone.
chmod 766/home/sample.txt Command to set rwx for owner, rw for group and everyone.
chown owner fileCommand to change ownership of the file.
chown owner-user:owner-group filenameCommand to change owner and group owner of the file.
chown owner-user:owner-group direcCommand to change owner and group owner of the directory.
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Process Related based Linux Commands:

psCommand to display currently active processes.
ps aux | grep ‘telnet’Searches for the id of the process ‘telnet’.
pmapCommand to display memory map of processes.
topCommand to display all running processes.
kill pidCommand to terminates process with a given pid.
killall procCommand to kill/terminate all processes named proc.
pkill process-nameCommand to send a signal to a process with its name.
bg Command to resumes suspended works in the background.
fgCommand to bring suspended works to the foreground.
fg n job n to the foreground.
lsofCommand to list files that are open by processes.
renice 19 PIDCommand to make a process run with very low priority.
pgrep chromeCommand to find Chrome process ID.
pstreeCommand to visualize processes in tree model.

Network-based Linux Commands:

ip addr showCommand to display IP addresses.
ip address add dev eth2Command to assign IP address to interface eth2.
ifconfigCommand to display IP addresses of all network interfaces.
ping hostthe ping command sends an ICMP echo request to establish a connection to server.
whois domainCommand to retrieve more information about a domain name.
dig domainCommand to retrieve DNS information about the domain.
dig -x hostCommand to perform a reverse lookup on a domain.
host tecrobust.comCommand to perform an IP lookup for the domain name.
hostname -iCommand to display local IP address.
wget file_nameCommand to download a file from an online source.
netstat -pnltuCommand to display all active listening ports.

Linux Command to handle Install Packages & Source:

sudo apt install packageCommand to install APT package
sudo apt remove packageCommand to remove an APT package
dnf install pkg_nameCommand to Install the package using dnf utility
make installThe command installs the binaries in the default/modified paths after the compilation
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Linux Commands to handle compression:

tar -cf filename.tar home<:code>Command to create archive file called ‘filename.tar’ from file ‘home’.
tar -xf file.tarCommand to extract archive file ‘file.tar’.
tar -zcvf etc.tar.gz source-folderCommand to create gzipped tar archive file from the source folder.
gzip fileCreate a compressed file with .gz extension.

Search Linux Commands:

grep ‘matching-pattern’ filesCommand to search for a matching pattern in files.
grep -r provided-pattern dirCommand to search recursively for a pattern in a given directory.
locate fileCommand to find all instances of the files.
find /etc/ -name “main” Command to find file names that begin with ‘main’ in /etc folder.
find /etc -size +100kCommand to find files greater than 100k in the etc folder.

File Transfer Linux Commands:

scp file.txt server/mainSecurely copy file.txt to server in /main directory.
rsync -a /home/images /folder1/Synchronize contents in /home/images directory with /folder1  directory.

Login Linux Commands:

ssh [email protected]Securely connect to host as username.
ssh -p port-number [email protected] Securely connect to host using a specified port (22, 80, 443).
ssh hostSecurely connect to the server via SSH on default port 22.
telnet hostConnect to host via telnet default port 23.

Directory Access Linux Commands:

cd ..Command to move up one level in the directory.
cdCommand to change directory to $HOME directory.
cd /sampleCommand to change directory to /sample directory.


That’s it. These are the most commonly using Basic Linux Commands, If you have any queries and then comment us below.

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